Clean from the beginning!

Welcome to Learning English

Navigation: Home > Learning >

10-A. Scientific Attitudes

Published:2013-01-20 16:36 Click:wait for……
10-A. Scientific Attitudes Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment. He wondered where the sun went at night and why the sky was blue. He questioned why the wind blew and the leaves fell. He sought an
Font Size: S M L
10-A. Scientific Attitudes

Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment. He wondered where the sun went at night and why the sky was blue. He questioned why the wind blew and the leaves fell. He sought answers to these and other questions. Not all his answers were correct, but at least he did want to know.

Curiosity and Imagination
Science began to develop rapidly when man laid aside his wrong beliefs and begs to seek true explanations. Young children are curious about how things work. The child wants to take apart a watch to see what makes it work.

Benjamin Franklin wondered about lightning He combined his curiosity with imagination and carried out his well-known experiment to show that lightning and an electric spark are the same thing. Curiosity and  imagination are important qualities which help stimulate the discovery of new facts and advance science.

Belief in Cause and Effect
Scientifically minded people believe in a "cause-and-effect" relationship. They feel there is a perfectly natural explanation for everything. For example, there is a good reason why some leaves turn red and others yellow in the fall. Changes such as these, which are easily observed, are called phenomena.  Some common phenomena, however, are not completely understood. Still others cannot be explained at all at this time. In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered.
Being Open - Minded
Open-mindedness is also extremely important to a scientific attitude. This means the ability to face the facts as they are regardless of what one has previously thought. It includes an ability to accept new and sometimes even disagreeable ideas. The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant. He must expect many failures and be willing to try again. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp.
The solutions to real problems cannot be seen in advance. Scientists must be able to change their thinking and to adapt their theories to new facts as they are discovered. The mind cannot be made up once and for all. New knowledge may make a change in thinking necessary. This is another way of saying that man's understanding is always less than perfect. What is accepted as true often is relatively, and not absolutely, true. A scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time.

Respect for the Views of Others
Another part of a scientific attitude is respect for the views of others. This is easy when these views are like one's own. The difficulty comes up when their ideas are different. Views which are entirely new or foreign may also be hard to accept.

New ideas are frequently very slow to be accepted. Scientists such as Galileo, Louis Pasteur, and Edward Jenner were laughed at because they held theories that were not accepted. Respect for new ideas is important for continued progress in all fields of knowledge

Opinions on Evidence
Sometimes evidence is not complete. It may take time for new facts to become available. When they are available, a person may have to change his mind. New findings may also require a “wait-and-see” attitude. For example, there is an experiment on the sprouting of seeds which has been running for more than 50 years. The purpose is to determine how long a time can be buried in the ground and still grow when proper conditions for growth exist.

如果下面音标不能正确显示,请自行安装字体文件 TOPhonetic.ttf


scientific[`sai4n'tifik]a.科学的   
attitude['1titju:d]n.1.姿势,姿态;2.态度,看法(to, forwards)
environment[in'vai4r4nm4nt]n.环境,周围状况,自然环境  
curiosity[`kju4ri'3siti]n.好奇(心);求知欲
imagination[i`m1d9i'nei54n]n.1.想象,想象力;2.空想,幻觉
apart[4'p2:t]ad.分离,分开    
stimulate['stimjuleit]vt.刺激,激励
scientifically[`sai4nti'fik4li]ad.科学地    
relationship[ri'lei54n5ip]n.关系,联系
phenomenon[fi'n3min4n]n.现象,迹象    
unknown['8n'n4un]未知的,不知名的
open-minded['4upen 'maindid]a.1.无偏见的;2.虚心的
open-mindedness['4upen 'maindidnis]1.无偏见;2.虚心
regardless[ri'g2:dlis]a.1.不留心的,不注意的2.不关心的;ad.不论如何,不顾,不惜
previously['pri:vj4sli]ad.在前地,早先地  
disagreeable[`dis4'gri:4bl]a.让人讨厌的,不合心意的
unpleasant[8n'pleznt]a.使人不愉快的;不合意的
failure['feilj4]n.1.失败;2.失灵,故障;3.没做到,不履行(to+v.)
solution[s4'lju:54n]n.1.解答,解决办法;2.溶解,溶液  
thinking['7i6ki6]n.1.思想,思考;2.想法,见解
adapt[4'd1pt]vt.1.使适应,使适合(to);2.改编,改写;vi.适应(to)
perfect['p4:fikt, p4'fekt]a.1.完美的,完满的;2.完全的,十足的;vt.使完美,改善
acceptable[4k'sept4bl]a.可以接受的    
entirely[in'tai4li]ad.1.全部地,完整地;2.完全地,彻底地
frequently['fri:kw4ntli]ad.经常地;频繁地   
evidence['evid4ns]n.根据,证据
finding['faindi6]n.1.发现(物);2.[常pl.](调查或研究)结果
sprout[spraut]vi.(种子,植物)发牙,抽条;vi.使发芽;n.新芽,嫩苗
determine[di't4:min]vt.1.决定;2.查明,确定;3.决心   
growth[gr4u7]n.1.增长,增加;2.生长,发展     
in advance1.预先,事先;2.在前面
lay aside1. 把...放在一边,把...搁置一旁;2.把...储存在以后,留存
take apart拆散;拆开 
carry out1.实行;2.贯彻,执行
believe in相信,信任  
regardless of不顾;不管 
adapt...to使...适应...  
make up one's mind下决心  
once and for all永远地,一劳永逸地   
in the light of1.按照,根据;2.鉴于   
respect for尊重         
laugh at嘲笑;讥笑


 
Unit 10   Text A   Scientific Attitudes
搭配:
1. Seek answers to questions  寻找什么问题的答案(seek的过去式:sought)/动词词组
2. lay aside  搁置(lay的过去式:Laid)/动词词组
3. Be curious about  对什么好奇/形容词词组
4. Take apart (e.g. a watch)  拆散/动词词组
5. Combine sth. with sth.  把什么和什么结合在一起/动词词组
6. Carry out the experiment  完成试验/动词词组
7. Belief in sth./sb.  相信某人或某事/名词词组
8. (there is)an explanation for sth.  解释某事/名词性词组
9. There is a good reason why +句子  这就是为什么的原因
10. Not at all  一点也不/副此词组
11. Regardless of  不管;无论/形容词词组
12. Succeed in sth./doing sth.  成工作某事/动词词组
13. The solutions to problems  问题的解决办法/名词的解决方法
14. In advance  提前/副词词组
15. Adapt sth. to sth.  使什么适应什么/动词词组
16. Make up one's mind  下定决心/动词词组
17. Once and for all  一劳永逸地/副词词组
18. Change in thinking  思想的转变/名词词组
19. Make sth. necessary  事某事很必要/动词词组
20. In the light of sth.  根据,参照,考虑到/介词词组
21. Respect for sth.  对什么的尊敬/名词词组,动词词组
22. The difficulty comes up.  问题产生了
23. Base on sth.  根据什么/动词词组
24. It may take time for sth./sb. to do sth.  做某事花某人多长时间
25. Conditions for sth.  什么的条件/名词词组
语言点:
1. Belief的复数形式为beliefs
2. Well-known/著名的
3. Curious(adj.好奇的)——curiosity(n.好奇);imagine(v.想象)-imagination(n.想象力)
4. Scientifically minded people  有科学头脑的人
5. In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered. 在对于现象还无法解释的时候,科学的观点是有理由相信迟早这种解释是可以被发现的。
6. This means the ability to(做什么的能力) face the facts as they are(实事求是) regardless of what one has previously thought.
7. Agree(v.同意)-disagreeable(adj.令人讨厌的)
8. The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.
I didn't know whether to laugh or to cry when I heard the news.是…还是…
Whether he succeeds or fails, he has to do his best.
He doesn't know whether she is in Britain or she has gone to France.
9. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp.
10. Accept(v.接受)-acceptable(adj.可接受的)
11. Scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time.
12. New ideas are frequently very slow to be accepted.
13. Continued progress  继续的发展
14. 时态题:There is an experiment on the sprouting of seeds which has been running for more than 50 years.
 
 
Unit Ten

1. There are scientific ways in which man solves problems.
人们可以以科学的方法来解决问题。
2. Problems arise in a variety of ways. 问题出现的方式有多种方式。
3. Problems are arising from new discoveries in the fields of nuclear physics, biological engineering and microelectronics. 问题多产生于核物理、生物工程和微电子领域的新发现。
4. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved. 工业的发展也带来了大量的必须解决的问题。
5. Often this means going to the library and studying books which contain accounts of man's experience and knowledge of the problem.
  Means 后面接动名词作宾语,表示"意味着"。后面接动词不定式表示"企图,打算去做… " (Editor:admin)
------line----------------------------
AD234
Recommended