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12-A. How Dictionaries Are Made

Published:2013-01-22 10:19 Click:wait for……
12-A. How Dictionaries Are Made It is widely believed that every word has a correct meaning, that we learn these meanings mainly from teachers and grammarians, and that dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meanin
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12-A. How Dictionaries Are Made

It is widely believed that every word has a correct meaning, that we learn these meanings mainly from teachers and grammarians, and that dictionaries and grammars are the supreme authority in matters of meaning and usage. Few people ask by what authority the writers of dictionaries and grammars say what they say. I once got into a dispute with an English woman over the pronunciation of a word and offered to look it up in the dictionary. The English woman said firmly, “What for? I am English. I was born and brought up in England, The way I speak is English.” Such self-assurance about one’s own language is fairly common among the English. In the United States, however, anyone who is willing to quarrel with the dictionary is regarded as either eccentric or mad.

Let us see how dictionaries are made and how the editors arrive at definitions. What follows applies only to those dictionary offices where first-hand, original research goes on - not those in which editors simply copy existing dictionaries. The task of writing a dictionary begins with the reading of vast amounts of the literature of the period or subject that the dictionary is to cover. As the editors read, they copy on cards every interesting or rare word, every unusual or peculiar occurrence of a common word, a large number of common words in their ordinary uses, and also the sentences in which each of these words appears.
That is to say, the context of each word is collected, along with the word itself. For a really big job of dictionary writing, such as the Oxford English Dictionary, millions of such cards are collected, and the task of editing occupies decades. As the cards are collected, they are alphabetized and sorted. When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations, each on its card.

To define a word, then, the dictionary editor places before him the stack of cards illustrating that word; each of the cards represents an actual use of the word by a writer of some literary or historical importance. He reads the cards carefully, discards some, re-reads the rest, and divides up the stack according to what he thinks are the several senses of the word. Finally, he writes his definitions, following the hard-and-fast rule that each definition must be based on what the quotations in front of him reveal about the meaning of the word. The editor cannot be influenced by what he thinks a given word ought to mean. He must work according to the cards, or not at all.

The writing of a dictionary, therefore, is not a task of setting up authoritative statements about the "true meanings" of words, but a task of recording, to the best of one's ability, what various words have meant to authors in the distant or immediate past, If, for example, we had been writing a dictionary in 1890, or even as late as l919, we could have said that the word "broadcast" means "to scatter" (seed, for example), but we could not have stated that from 1921 on, the common meaning of the word should become “to send out programs by radio or television.”  In choosing our words when we Speak or write, we can be guided by the historical record provided us by the dictionary, but we cannot be bound by it, because new situations, new experiences, new inventions, new feelings, are always forcing us to give new uses to old words. Looking under a “hood,” we should ordinarily have found, five hundred years ago, a monk; today, we find a car engine.
 
如果下面音标不能正确显示,请自行安装字体文件 TOPhonetic.ttf
 
mainly['meinli]ad.主要地;大部分地
grammarian[gr4'mA4ri4n]n.语法学家
supreme[sju'pri:m]a.1.最高的,至上的;2.极度的,最主要的
authority[3:'73riti]n.1.[pl.]官方,当局,当权者;2.权力,权威
usage['ju:zid9]n.1.惯用法;2.使用,用法
dispute[dis'pju:t]vt./vi.争吵,争论(on或about);n.争论,争端
self-assurance['self 4'5u4r4ns]n.自信
regard[ri'g2:d]vt.1.看待,考虑;2.把...看作为(as);n.1.重视,关心(for);2.[pl.](写信时用语)致意,问候
eccentric[ik'sentrik]a.(人,行为,举止等)古怪的,怪癖的;异乎寻常的
editor['edit4]n.编辑,编者
peculiar[pi'kju:li4]a.1.特殊的,独特的;2.奇怪的,古怪的
occurrence[4'k8r4ns]n.1.发生,出现;2.发生的事情,事件
edit['edit]vt.编辑,编选
occupy['3kjupai]vt.1.占用,占领;2.使忙碌,使从事
decade['dekeid]n.十年,十年期
alphabetize['1lf4b4taiz]vt.按字母顺序排列,用字母表示
quotation[kw4u'tei54n]n.1.引文,引语;2.(交易)报价
stack[st1k]n.整齐的一叠(或一堆);vt.把...叠成堆,堆放于
illustrate['il4streit]vt.1.说明,阐明;2.给...作插图说明
literary['lit4r4ri]a.文学(上)的  
historical[his't3rik4l]a.历史的
discard[dis'k2:d]vt.丢弃,抛弃
according[4'k3:di6]ad.(与to构成介词)按照,根据
hard-and-fast[h2:d 4nd f2:st]a.明确的,不容改变的;ad.坚定地,不变动地
reveal[ri'vi:l]vt.1.揭露,泄露;2.展现,显示
influence['influ4ns]n.1.影响(on);2.势力,权势;vt.影响
authoritative[3:'73rit4tiv]a.1.权威性的;2.官方的,当局的
author['3:74]n.作者
distant['dist4nt]a.在远处的,远隔的,久远的
immediate[i'mi:dj4t]a.1.立即的,即刻的;2直接的,最接近的
broadcast['br3:dk2:st]n./vt./vi.广播,播音
scatter['sk1t4]vt.1.撒,撒播;2.使散开,驱散;vi.分散,消散
bind[baind]vt.捆绑,捆扎
invention[in'ven54n]n.1.发明,创造;2.捏造,虚构
hood[hud]n.1.风帽,头巾;2.(连在修道士袍服上的)兜帽;3.(汽车的)发动机罩
ordinarily['3:din4rili]ad.通常地,惯常地
monk[m86k]n.修道士,僧侣  
engine['end9in]n.1.发动机,引擎;2.机车,火车头
get into1.进入,陷入;2.染上(习惯)
look up(在词典,参考书等中)查检 
bring up1.教育,培养;2.提出(供讨论或促使注意)
according to根据...  
in front of在...前面  
the best of就...所及

 
Unit 12  Text A How Dictionaries Are Made
搭配:
1. Get into a discussion with sb.  与某人探讨/动词词组
2. What for?  为什么
3. Be willing to do sth.  愿意做某事/形容词词组
4. Quarrel with sb.  与某人争吵/动词词组
5. Sb./sth. is regarded as  某人/某事被认为/动词词组
6. Arrive at sth.  得出结论/动词词组
7. Apply to  应用于/动词词组
8. Begin with  开始于/动词词组
9. Amounts of+不可数名词  大量的
10. That is to say  也就是说
11. Along with sth./sb.  还有某人或某事
12. Divide up  分开/动词词组
13. According to(介词)  根据
14. Be based on  根据/动词词组
15. Be influenced by  被什么影响/动词词组
16. Ought to do sth.  应该作某事/动词词组
17. To the best of one's ability  尽某人最大的努力(插入语)
18. Be guided by  被什么引导/动词词组
19. Be bound by sth.  由什么注定
语言点:
1. It is widely believed that +从句=人们普遍相信
2. Existing dictionary  现存字典
3. When the sorting is completed, there will be for each word anywhere from two or three to several hundred quotations, each on its card.
4. To define(动词不定式表目的) a word, the dictionary editor places before him the stack of cards illustrating(现在分词放在名词后,作后置定语) that word.
5. The editor cannot be influenced by what a given (过分作定语,表示已给出的)word ought to mean.
Unit Twelve

1. For students , almost all studying involves reading.

对学生来说,差不多所有的学习都涉及到阅读。involve 后接动名词作宾语。
2. The purpose of scanning is to get a quick understanding of what to expect from the reading, so that you will know what you are reading as you go along. (para.4)
浏览的目的是迅速了解能从阅读中获取什么,这样你就在阅读过程中清楚你读的内容。
3. The expression "haste makes waste" does not apply to reading.
欲速则不达这个说法并不适用于阅读。
4. Remember , nothing hurts concentration more than reading too slowly.
要记住,没有什么比读得太慢更能影响注意力集中了。
5. By always reading at your top speed, you challenge your understanding and make it easier for your mind to concentrate on the material.
通过始终以最快速度阅读,你向你的理解力提出挑战,从而使你的思想更容易集中在你的阅读材料上。
6. The more words you are familiar with , the less you are aware of reading words and the more you are aware of content and meaning .
你认识的单词越多,你越不觉得你是在读词,而越觉得你在理解内容和意义。扩大词汇会帮助你读得更快,效果更好。
7. Many people simply skip over words they do not understand.
很多人对不理解的单词只是单纯地跳过去。
8. Other people stop at each new word and look it up in the dictionary, but this method can slow down your reading, affecting concentration and comprehension.
9. But you can build your vocabulary without using a dictionary each time.
10. The key to the method is to be alert to new words.

使用这个方法的关键是特别留意生词。
(Editor:admin)
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