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04-B. Short-term Memory

Published:2013-01-26 20:14 Click:wait for……
04-B. Short-term Memory There are two kinds of memory: short-term and long-term. Information in long-term memory can be recalled at a later time when it is needed. The information may be kept for days
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04-B. Short-term Memory

There are two kinds of memory: short-term and long-term. Information in long-term memory can be recalled at a later time when it is needed. The information may be kept for days or weeks. Sometimes information in the long-term memory is hard to remember. Students taking exam often have this experience. In contrast, information in short-term memory is kept for only a few seconds, usually by repeating the information over and over. For example, you look up a number in the telephone book, and before you dial, you repeat the number over and over. If someone interrupts you, you will probably forget the number. In laboratory studies, subjects are unable to remember three letters after eighteen seconds if they are not allowed to repeat the letters to themselves.

Psychologists study memory and learning with both animal and human subjects. The two experiments here show how short-term memory has been studied.

Dr. Hunter studied short-term memory in rats. He used a special apparatus which had a cage for the rat and three doors, There was a light in each door. First the rat was placed in the closed cage. Next, one of the lights was turned on and then off. There was food for the rat only at this door. After the light was turned off, the rat had to wait a short time before it was released from its cage. Then, if it went to the correct door, it was rewarded with the food that was there. Hunter did this experiment many times. He always turned on the lights in a random order. The rat had to wait different intervals before it was released from the cage. Hunter found that if the rat had to wait more than ten seconds, it could not remember the correct door. Hunter's results show that rats have a short-term memory of about ten seconds.

Later, Dr. Henning studied how students who are learning English as a second language remember vocabulary. The subjects in his experiment were 75 students at the University of California in Los Angeles. They represented all levels of ability in English; beginning, intermediate, advanced, and native-speaking students.

To begin, the subjects listened to a recording of a native speaker reading a paragraph in English. Following the recording, the subjects took a 15-question test to see which words they remembered. Each question had four choices. The subjects had to circle the word they had heard in the recording. Some of the questions had four choices that sound alike. For example, weather, whether, wither, and wetter are four words that sound alike. Some of the questions had four choices that have the same meaning. Method, way, manner, and system would be four words with the same meaning. Some of them had four unrelated choices. For instance, weather, method, love, and result could be used as four unrelated words. Finally the subjects took a language proficiency test.

Henning found that students with a lower proficiency in English made more of their mistakes on words that sound alike; students with a higher proficiency made more of their mistakes on words that have the same meaning. Henning’s results suggest that beginning students hold the sound of words in their short-term memory, while advanced students hold the meaning of words in their short-term memory.

short-term  ['53:t't4:m]  a.短期的    
long-term  ['l36t4:m]   a.长期的
recall  [ri'k3:l]  vt.1.回忆,回想;2.召回;3.撤消,收回
contrast ['k3ntr2:st] n.对比,对照;vi.(with)形成对比;.把...与...对比(with)
dial  ['dai4l]  vt./vi.拨(电话号码),打电话(给);n.1.钟(或表)面;2.标度盘;3.拨号盘
interrupt [`int4'r8pt]  vt.打断,打扰;终止,阻碍;vi.打断,打扰
unable  ['8n'eib4l]  a.[后接动词不定式]不能的,不会的
psychologist  [sai'k3l4d9ist]  n.心理学家
human  ['hju:m4n]  a.人的,人类的;n.人
apparatus  [`1p4'reit4s]  n.器械,器具,设备    
rat  [r1t]  n.鼠
release  [ri'li:s]  n./vt.1.释放,解放;2.发布,发行;3放开,松开
reward  [ri'w3:d]  n./vt.1.酬劳,奖赏;2报答
interval  ['int4v4l]  n.间隔,间距;幕间(或工间)休息
represent [`repri'zent]vt.1.作为...代表(或代理);2.表示,相片;3.描绘,表现
intermediate  [`int4'mi:dj4t]  a.中间的;中级的
advanced  [4d'v2:nst]  a. 先进的,高级的
native-speaking  ['neitiv'spi:ki6]  a.说本族语的,讲本国话的
recording  [ri'k3:di6]  n.录制(尤指广播,电视等)节目
speaker  ['spi:k4] n.1.说话者,演讲者;讲某种语言的人;2.扬声器
paragraph  ['p1r4gr2:f]  n.(文章的)段落,节
alike  [4'laik]  a.同样的,相像的    
wither  ['wi04]  vt./vi.(使)枯萎,凋谢
method  ['me74d]  n.方法,办法    
system  ['sistim]  n.1.系统,体系;2.制度,体制
unrelated  [8nri'leitid]  a.无关的,不相关的    
proficiency  [pr4'fi54nsi]  n.[U]熟练,精通    
in contrast  成对比 
look up  在字典、参考书中查找    
be unable to  不能做某事
turn on  开,接通(水源,电源,煤气等)    
turn off  关,关断(水源,电源,煤气等)

 


Unit 4  Text B  Short-term Memory
搭配:
1. in contrast  与此相反; 同义词conversely, on the other hand (阅读技巧:下文和上文的完全转折)
2. over and over  一次又一次地/副词词组
3. look up sth. in sth.  在什么中查找,查阅什么/动词词组
4. repeat sth. to oneself  自言自语/动词词组
5. study sth. with sth.  用什么来研究什么/动词词组
6. turn on/turn off the lights  开灯、关灯/动词词组
7. be released from some place  被从什么地方放出/动词词组
8. to begin with  首先,最初/副词词组
语言点:
1. 时态问题:在时间状语、条件状语从句中,主句用将来时态,从句用现在时表示将来。E.g. If someone interrupts you,you will probably forget the number.
2. able-unable
3. Following the recording, the subjects took a 15-question test to see which words they remembered. 注:Following=after;a 15-question test=a 15 questions'test; a five-year old boy=a five years’ old boy
4. relate(联系)-related(相连的)-unrelated(不相关联的) (Editor:admin)
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