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05-B. Do Animals Think?

Published:2013-01-26 20:19 Click:wait for……
05-B. Do Animals Think? The question has often been asked, Do animals think? I believe that some of them think a great deal. Many of them are like children in their sports. We notice this to be true ve
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05-B. Do Animals Think?

The question has often been asked, Do animals think? I believe that some of them think a great deal. Many of them are like children in their sports. We notice this to be true very often with dogs and cats; but it is true with other animals as well.

Some birds are very lively in their sports; and the same is true with some insects. The ants, hardworking as they are, have their times for play. They run races; they wrestle; and sometimes they have mock fights together. Very busy must be their thoughts while engaged in these sports.

There are many animals, however, that never play; their thoughts seem to be of the more sober kind. We never see frogs engaged in sport. They all the time appear to be very grave. The same is true of the owl, who always looks as if he were considering some important question.

Animals think much while building their houses. The bird searches for what it can use in building its nest, and in doing this it thinks. The beavers think as they build their dams and their houses. They think in getting their materials, and also in arranging them, and in plastering them together with mud. Some spiders build houses which could scarcely have been made except by some thinking creature.

As animals think, they learn. Some learn more than others. The parrot learns to talk, though in some other respects it is quite stupid. The mocking bird learns to imitate a great many different sounds. The horse is not long in learning many things connected with the work which he has to do. The shepherd dog does not know as much about most things as some other dogs , and yet he understands very well how to take care of sheep.

Though animals think and learn, they  do not make any real improvement in their ways of doing things, as men do. Each kind of bird has its own way of  building a nest, and it is always the same way. And so of other animals. They have no new fashions, and learn none from each other. But men, as you know, are always finding new ways of building houses, and improved methods of doing almost all kinds of labor.

Many of the things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand. They are said to do such things by instinct; but no one can tell what instinct is. It is by this instinct that birds build their nests and beavers their dam and huts. If these things were all planned and thought out just as men plan new houses. there would be some changes in the fashions of them, and some improvements.

I have spoken of the building instinct of  beavers. An English gentleman caught a young one and put him at first in a cage. After a while he let him out in a room where there was a great variety of things. As soon as he was let out he began to exercise his building instinct. He gathered together whatever he could find, brushes, baskets, boots, clothes, sticks, bits of coal, etc., and arranged them as if to build a dam. Now, if he had had his wits about him, he would have known that there was no use in building a dam where there was no water.

It is plain that, while animals learn about things by their senses as we do, they do not think nearly as much about what they learn, and this is the reason why they do not improve more rapidly. Even the wisest of them, as the elephant and the dog, do not think very much about what they see and hear. Nor is this all. There are some thing that we understand, but about which animals know nothing. They have no knowledge of anything that happens outside of their own observation. Their minds are so much unlike ours that they do not know the difference between right and wrong.

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insect['insekt]n.昆虫     ant[1nt]n.蚂蚁     hardworking[h2:d'w4:ki6]a.努力工作的
wrestle['resl]vi.角力或摔跤比赛     mock[m3k]vt./vi.愚弄,嘲弄;a.假的,模拟的
engage[in'geid9]vi. (in)从事于,参加;vt.1.使从事于,使忙于;2.占用(时间等)
sober['s4ub4]n.1.冷静的,镇定的;2.认真的,严肃的     frog[fr3g]n.蛙
grave[greiv]a.1.严重的;2.严肃的,庄重的;n.坟墓     owl[aul]n.猫头鹰
nest[nest]n.巢,窝     beaver['bi:v4]n.海狸     dam[d1m]n.坝, 堤
arrange[4'reind9]vt.1.安排,筹划;2.整理,排列
plaster['pl2:st4]vt.1.粘贴;2.涂灰泥于(墙等);n.灰泥,石膏
mud[m8d]n.泥,泥浆     spider['spaid4]n.蜘蛛   scarcely['skA4sli]ad.几乎不,几乎没有
creature['kri:t54]n.1.生物,动物;2.人   imitate['imiteit]vt.1.模仿,仿效;2.仿制,仿造
shepherd['5ep4d]n.牧羊人     improvement[im'pru:vm4nt]n.改进,增进
fashion['f154n]n.1.方式,样子;2.流行式样   instinct[in'sti6kt]n.1.本能,直觉;2.生性,天性    hut[h8t]n.小屋,棚屋    cage[keid9]n.笼
variety[v4'rai4ti]n.1.变化,多样化;2.品种,变种;3.种种,多种多样
boot[bu:t]n.靴    etc.[it'setr4][缩][拉]以及其他,等等
wit[wit]n.智力,才智
unlike['8n'laik]prep.不像...,和...不同;a.不相似的,不同的
a great deal大量,许多    be true with对...一样,对...也是真的
engage in从事,忙于    be true of对...一样,对...也是真的
as if好像,似乎仿佛    search for搜寻,搜寻,探察
take care of1.爱护;2.照顾,照料;3.处理,对付




Unit 5  Text B Do Animals Think
搭配:
1. a great deal  非常/副词词组,放在动词后;a great deaf of +n.(不可数)大量
2. be true with(of) sb./sth.  什么什么也是真的;如此/动词词组
3. as well  也/副词词组,放在句末
4. be engaged in sth./doing  忙于做某事/动词词组
5. search for  寻找/动词词组
6. in some respects  在一些方面/介词词组
7. take care of  照顾/动词词组
8. make improvement in  在哪方面取得进步
9. by instinct  本能地/副词词组
10. think out  周密考虑/动词词组
11. speak of  说到/动词词组
12. let sb./sth. out  释放/动词词组
13. a variety of  多种多样的/表量词组
14. have no knowledge of sth/sb./doing sth.  对什么人/什么事/做某事一无所知/动词词组
语言点:
1. live(v.)-lively(adj.活泼的)
2. 倒装句:hardworking as they are. 此处的as表示although或though,尽管的意思,但用as时,需要把形容词或副词放在句首+as+顺状语序。该句话翻译成:尽管他们很努力工作。E.g. Although I love you much, I still can't help you. 可以转换成:Much as I love you, I still can't help you. E.g. Though this movie is very moving, I still can't afford time to see it. 可以转换成:Moving as this movie is, I still can't afford time to see it.
3. sober冷静的/严肃的;其比较级是 more sober
4. could have done/could have been done  本可以做或被做的事而没有做。
could not have done/could not have been done  本不可能做或被做的事而作了
5. 主语+is not long in doing sth  做某事不会花很长时间
6. 难句:Many of things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand. 词句话为倒装语序,顺装应为:They seem to know many of things that animals know how to do, either without learning, or in some way which we cannot understand. 其中:either…or…表示“要么…要么…” 把此句可以翻译成:它们似乎知道很多动物做事的方法,这些方法要么不是靠学到的,要么就是以我们所不理解的方式知道的。
7. 重要句型:We never see frogs engaged in sport.
The owl always looks as if he were considering some important question.(as if的句型里出现了虚拟语气,由于是对现在的虚拟,所以采用了系动词were的形式)
Now,if he had had his wits about him, he would have known that there was no use in building a dam where there was no water.(此句为对过去虚拟的句型,原则为if条件句型用助动词had加上动词的过去分词形式,主句用情态动词would等加上have done 的形式;本句第二个had是have one's wits 这个词组的动词过去分词形式;另外,此处的there was no use in 后面只能接动词的ing 形式)
Animals think much while building their houses.(此句话为省略句型之所以用building,一方面是因为在时间状语从句里省略了语主句相同的主语animals和系动词are,另一方面是因为animals 可以发出build的动作,所以用主动的doing形式)
They are said to do sth.  据说……
It is by this instinct that birds build their nests and beavers their dams and huts.(本句话为强调句型;划线部分为强调句型的基本配置,划线部分之间是被强调成分)
The reason why…做某事的原因
It is plain that +从句  很明显
Their minds are so much unlike outs that they do not know the difference between right and wrong. (此句为so …that…句型;unlike为adj.表示不像) (Editor:admin)
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