Clean from the beginning!

Welcome to Learning English

Navigation: Home > Learning >

10-B. Solving Problems Scientifically

Published:2013-01-26 20:45 Click:wait for……
10-B. Solving Problems Scientifically There are scientific ways in which man solves problems. Once his curiosity has been aroused, he uses certain methods and procedures to obtain new knowledge and gre
Font Size: S M L
10-B. Solving Problems Scientifically

There are scientific ways in which man solves problems. Once his curiosity has been aroused, he uses certain methods and procedures to obtain new knowledge and greater understanding. Although the methods are not always the same, there are usually certain elements in the procedures that are similar.

Recognizing the Problem
Problems must first of all be recognized. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions are asked. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Problems arise in a variety of ways. Sometimes they grow out of a chance observation. They may result from reading, from laboratory experiments, or simply from thinking. They also may result from new developments or from new or different human needs. Today, for example, problems are arising from new discoveries in the fields of nuclear physics, biological engineering and microelectronics. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved.

Collecting Information
Next, the scientist tries to learn as much as possible about it. Often this means going to the library and studying books which contain accounts of man’s experience and knowledge of the problem. This is called searching the literature.
The scientist may find that others have already solved all or a part of the problem. Occasionally he finds answers to closely related questions, which give clues for solving the new one. In his search the scientist accumulates much background information. With these new ideas and facts he builds a firm foundation for solving the problem.

Organizing the Information
After the scientist has finished this part of his work he will probably take the many facts which he has collected and organize them into some kind of system. This may be a logical classification or it may be a mathematical analysis. Usually the analysis will show unanswered questions. Sometimes it will suggest areas that are in need of further study. Perhaps one of the most important results of such an analysis is that it indicates certain truths, which generally are called inferences.

Making a Hypothesis
In making an inference the scientist has built up a hypothesis. A hypothesis is only a "best” guess. It must next be tested.

If it is correct, then certain things should follow. This means if a particular experiment is carried out, certain observations ought to be possible or it should be possible to make certain predictions.
Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. If, however, observations cannot be made or the predictions are unreliable, then the hypothesis will probably be given up or at least modified.

The Experiment
The hypothesis must check with the facts. Scientific facts are  usually established by work in the laboratory. Experiments have to be  made under carefully controlled conditions. Thorough and accurate records must be kept.

In making certain kinds of experiments in science variables are used. A variable is something which has different values under different conditions. In one type of laboratory test all the variables but one are controlled. This method of testing is called controlled experimentation.

如果下面音标不能正确显示,请自行安装字体文件 TOPhonetic.ttf


solve[s3lv]vt.解决,解答
arouse[4'rauz]vt.1.引起,激起;2.唤起,唤醒
procedure[pr4'si:d94]n.程序,手续,步骤
obtain[4b'tein]vt.获得,得到
solution[s4'lu:54n]n.1.解答,解决办法;2.溶解,溶液
arise[4'raiz]vi1出现,发生;2(from)由...引起
biological[`bai4'l3d9ik4l]a.生物学(上)的
engineering[`end9i'ni4ri6]n.1.工程,工程学;2.操纵,管理
microelectronics['maikr4uilek'tr3niks]n.[用作单或复]微电子学,超小型电子学
account[4'kaunt]n.1.叙述,说明;2.账,账户;vi.(for)说明(原因等)
related[ri'leitid]a.1.有关的,相关的(to);2.有亲戚(或亲缘)关系的
background['b1kgraund]n.背景
logical['l3d9ik4l]a.逻辑(上)的,符合逻辑的
mathematical[`m17i'm1tik4l]a.数学(上)的
analysis[4'n1l4sis]n. 1.分析;2.分解
unanswered['8n'2:ns4d]a.1.未予答复的;2.无响应的,无报答的
indicate['indikeit]vt.1.指示,指出;2.表示,表明
inference['inf4r4ns]n.推论,推理,推断
hypothesis[hai'p37isis]n.1.假说,假设;2(无根据的)猜测,揣测
prediction[pri'dik54n]n.1.预言,预计;2.预报
confidence['k3nfid4ns]n.信任,信心
probable['pr3b4bl]a.很可能的,大概的
unreliable['8nri'lai4bl]a.1.不可靠的,靠不住的;2.不可信赖的
modify['m3difai]vt.修改,更改
accurate['1kjurit]a.准确的,精确的
variable['vA4ri4bl]n.变量;a.1.易变的,可变的;2.变量的
experimentation[eks`perimen'tei54n]n.实验,试验
a variety of1.种种;2.若干不同的
result from1.发生;2.因...引起,起因于
in need of需要
build up1.建立,逐步树立;2.加强
carry out1.实现,进行;2.贯彻,执行
turn out (to be)原来是,(最后)证明是
check with为...相符,一致



Unit 10    Text B   Solving Problems Scientifically
搭配:
1. Arouse one's curiosity  引起某人的注意/动词词组
2. Result from=arise from  由于/动词词组;result in  导致/动词词组
3. Give clue for doing sth.  为做某事提供线索/动词词组
4. Build a firm foundation for doing sth.  为做某事打下坚实的基础/动词词组
5. Make an inference  做推论/动词词组
6. Turn out to be   结果是/动词词组
7. Check with  与什么相符/动词词组
语言点:
1. Once是连接词,表示一旦。
2. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Be well started toward 是什么的良好开端。
3. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved.
4. Related questions  相关问题;unanswered questions  为回答的问题;controlled conditions  被控制的条件
5. Reliable(adj.可信赖的)-unreliable(adj.不可信赖的)
6. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. = If the observations or predictions should turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis.
  (Editor:admin)
------line----------------------------
AD234
Recommended