There are scientific ways in which man solves problems. Once his curiosity has been aroused, he uses certain methods and procedures to obtain new knowledge and greater understanding. Although the methods are not always the same, there are usually certain elements in the procedures that are similar. Recognizing the ProblemProblems must first of all be recognized. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions are asked. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Problems arise in a variety of ways. Sometimes they grow out of a chance observation. They may result from reading, from laboratory experiments, or simply from thinking. They also may result from new developments or from new or different human needs. Today, for example, problems are arising from new discoveries in the fields of nuclear physics, biological engineering and microelectronics. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved.Collecting InformationNext, the scientist tries to learn as much as possible about it. Often this means going to the library and studying books which contain accounts of man’s experience and knowledge of the problem. This is called searching the literature. The scientist may find that others have already solved all or a part of the problem. Occasionally he finds answers to closely related questions, which give clues for solving the new one. In his search the scientist accumulates much background information. With these new ideas and facts he builds a firm foundation for solving the problem. Organizing the InformationAfter the scientist has finished this part of his work he will probably take the many facts which he has collected and organize them into some kind of system. This may be a logical classification or it may be a mathematical analysis. Usually the analysis will show unanswered questions. Sometimes it will suggest areas that are in need of further study. Perhaps one of the most important results of such an analysis is that it indicates certain truths, which generally are called inferences. Making a HypothesisIn making an inference the scientist has built up a hypothesis. A hypothesis is only a "best” guess. It must next be tested. If it is correct, then certain things should follow. This means if a particular experiment is carried out, certain observations ought to be possible or it should be possible to make certain predictions. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. If, however, observations cannot be made or the predictions are unreliable, then the hypothesis will probably be given up or at least modified. The ExperimentThe hypothesis must check with the facts. Scientific facts are usually established by work in the laboratory. Experiments have to be made under carefully controlled conditions. Thorough and accurate records must be kept. In making certain kinds of experiments in science variables are used. A variable is something which has different values under different conditions. In one type of laboratory test all the variables but one are controlled. This method of testing is called controlled experimentation. 如果下面音标不能正确显示，请自行安装字体文件 TOPhonetic.ttf solve[s3lv]vt.解决,解答arouse[4'rauz]vt.1.引起,激起;2.唤起,唤醒procedure[pr4'si:d94]n.程序,手续,步骤obtain[4b'tein]vt.获得,得到solution[s4'lu:54n]n.1.解答,解决办法;2.溶解,溶液arise[4'raiz]vi1出现,发生;2(from)由...引起biological[`bai4'l3d9ik4l]a.生物学(上)的engineering[`end9i'ni4ri6]n.1.工程,工程学;2.操纵,管理microelectronics['maikr4uilek'tr3niks]n.[用作单或复]微电子学,超小型电子学account[4'kaunt]n.1.叙述,说明;2.账,账户;vi.(for)说明(原因等)related[ri'leitid]a.1.有关的,相关的(to);2.有亲戚(或亲缘)关系的background['b1kgraund]n.背景logical['l3d9ik4l]a.逻辑(上)的,符合逻辑的mathematical[`m17i'm1tik4l]a.数学(上)的analysis[4'n1l4sis]n. 1.分析;2.分解unanswered['8n'2:ns4d]a.1.未予答复的;2.无响应的,无报答的indicate['indikeit]vt.1.指示,指出;2.表示,表明inference['inf4r4ns]n.推论,推理,推断hypothesis[hai'p37isis]n.1.假说,假设;2(无根据的)猜测,揣测prediction[pri'dik54n]n.1.预言,预计;2.预报confidence['k3nfid4ns]n.信任,信心probable['pr3b4bl]a.很可能的,大概的unreliable['8nri'lai4bl]a.1.不可靠的,靠不住的;2.不可信赖的modify['m3difai]vt.修改,更改accurate['1kjurit]a.准确的,精确的variable['vA4ri4bl]n.变量;a.1.易变的,可变的;2.变量的experimentation[eks`perimen'tei54n]n.实验,试验a variety of1.种种;2.若干不同的result from1.发生;2.因...引起,起因于in need of需要build up1.建立,逐步树立;2.加强carry out1.实现,进行;２.贯彻,执行turn out (to be)原来是,(最后)证明是check with为...相符,一致Unit 10 Text B Solving Problems Scientifically搭配：1. Arouse one's curiosity 引起某人的注意/动词词组 2. Result from=arise from 由于/动词词组；result in 导致/动词词组 3. Give clue for doing sth. 为做某事提供线索/动词词组 4. Build a firm foundation for doing sth. 为做某事打下坚实的基础/动词词组 5. Make an inference 做推论/动词词组 6. Turn out to be 结果是/动词词组 7. Check with 与什么相符/动词词组 语言点：1. Once是连接词，表示一旦。 2. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Be well started toward 是什么的良好开端。 3. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved. 4. Related questions 相关问题；unanswered questions 为回答的问题；controlled conditions 被控制的条件 5. Reliable（adj.可信赖的）-unreliable（adj.不可信赖的） 6. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected， the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. = If the observations or predictions should turn out to be as expected， the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. (Editor:admin) |