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09-A. Learned words and popular words

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09-A. Learned words and popular words In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, make up the whole vocabulary. First, there are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation,
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09-A. Learned words and popular words

In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, make up the whole vocabulary. First, there are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation, which we learn, that is to say, from the members of our own family and from our friends, and which we should know and use even if we could not read or write. They concern the common things of life, and are the stock in trade of all who speak the language. Such words may be called “popular,” since they belong to the people at large and are not the possession of limited class only.

On the other hand, our language includes a large number of words which are relatively seldom used in ordinary conversation. Their meanings are known to every educated person, but there is little occasion to use them at home. Our first acquaintance with them comes not from our mother's lips or from the talk of our classmates, but from books that we read, lectures that we hear, or the more formal conversation of highly educated speakers who are discussing some particular topic in an elevated style. Such words are called "learned", and the difference between them and "popular" words is of great importance to a right understanding of language.

The difference between popular and learned words may be easily seen in a few examples. We may describe a girl as “lively” or as "vivacious." In the first case, we are using a native English word formed from the familiar noun life. In the latter, we are using a Latin derivative which has exactly the same meaning. Yet the atmosphere of the two words is quite different. No one ever got the adjective lively out of a book. It is a part of everybody's vocabulary. We cannot remember a time when we did not know it, and we feel sure that we learned it long before we were able to read. On the other hand, we must have passed several years of our lives before learning the word vivacious. We may even remember the first time that we saw it in print or heard it from some grown-up friend. Both lively and vivacious are good English words, but Lively is popular and vivacious is learned.

The terms "popular" and "learned,” as applied to words, are not absolute definitions. No two persons have the same stock of words, and the same word may be "popular" in one man's vocabulary and "learned  in another's. There are also different grades of "popularity." Still, the classification into "learned" and "popular" is convenient and sound. Different opinions may come up as to the classification of any particular word, but there can be no difference of opinion about the general principle. We must be careful, however, to avoid misconception. When we call a word "popular," we do not mean that it is a favorite word, but simply that it belongs to the people as a whole that is, it is everybody's word, not the possession of a limited number. When we call a word "learned” we do not mean that it is used by learned persons alone, but simply that its presence in the English vocabulary is due to books and the cultivation of literature rather than to the actual needs of ordinary conversation.

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learned['l4:nid]a.1.有学问的,博学的;2.学术上的;a.经过训练学到的
cultivated['k8ltiveitid]a.1.耕种的,耕作的;2.栽培的,非野生的;3.有修养的,文雅的
concern[k4n's4:n]n.1.关心,挂念;2.关系,关联;vt.1.涉及,有关于;2.使关心,使挂念
stock[st3k]n.1.备料,库存;2.股票,公债;3.有货;vt.储备,储存
possession[p4'ze54n]n.1.所有,拥有;2.[pl.]所有物
relatively['rel4tivli]ad.比较而言;相对地
educated['edjukeitid]a.1.受过教育的,有知识的;2.有教养的
occasion[4'kei94n]n.1.时刻;2.场合,重大(或特殊)的活动;3.时机,机会
acquaintance[4'kweint4ns]n.1.认识,了解;2.相识的人,熟人
formal['f3:m4l]a.1.正式的;2.形式的3.礼仪上的
highly['haili]ad.高度地;极;非常
topic['t3pik]n.1.题目,话题;2.主题
elevated['eliveitid]a.1.提高的,升高的;2.高贵的,庄严的
style[stail]n.1.风格;2.文体;3.式样   
importance[im'p3:t4ns]n.重要(性)
vivacious[vi'vei54s]a.活泼的,轻快的
case[keis]n.1.情况,事实;2.病例;案件;3.箱,盒    
noun[naun]n.名词
Latin['l1tin]a.拉丁的,拉丁人的,拉丁语的;n.拉丁语,拉丁人
derivative[di'riv4tiv]n.派生词;派生物;a.派生的,衍生的
adjective['1d9iktiv]n.形容词
grown-up['gr4un 8p]a.成熟的,成人的;n.成年人
apply[4'plai]vi.1.申请,请求(for);2.适用(to);vt.应用,运用(to)
absolute['1bs4lu:t]a.绝对的,完全的
popularity[`p3pju'l1riti]n.1.普及,流行;2.名望,受欢迎
classification[`kl1sifi'kei54n]n.分类;分级
convenient[k4n'vi:nj4nt]a.方便的
avoid[4'v3id]vt.避免,避开
misconception['misk4n'sep54n]n.误解,错误想法;错误印象
presence['prezns]n.1.出席,到场;2.存在
cultivation[`k8lti'vei54n]n.1.耕种,耕作;2.教养,修养
literature['lit4r4t54]n.1.文学,文学作品;2.文献,图书资料
make up1.(由部分)组成,构成(全体);2.弥补,补偿,赔偿(损失等);3.捏造,虚构
stock in trade1.库存;2.常用手段   
belong to属于;是...的成员
at large1.普遍地,一般地;2.自由地,(未被捕)逍遥自在地
come up出现 
as to至于,关于 
be due to由于,因为 
rather than与其...(不如);不是...(而是)

 

Unit 9  Text A Learned Words and Popular Words
搭配:
1. Make up  构成/动词词组
2. Become familiar with sth./become familiar to sb.  对某人/某事很熟悉/形容词词组
3. Stock in trade  库存或常用手段/名词词组
4. Belong to  属于/动词词组
5. At large  逍遥地;一般地/副词词组
The criminals at large  逍遥法外的罪犯
Englishmen at large like to have the afternoon tea.  英国人一般喜欢喝下午茶。
6. Be known to sb.  为某人所知/动词词组
7. Acquaintance with sb./sth.  了解某人或某事/名词词组
8. In…style  以某种方式/介词词组
9. Describe sb./sth. as  把什么看作是,把某人描绘成/动词词组
10. In the first case  首先/副词词组
11. Apply sth. to sth.  把什么应用到什么上去;apply for sth.  申请什么/动词词组
12. Stock of words  词汇量/名词词组
13. As to  至于,有关于,就什么而言/介词词组
14. Be due to  因为/形容词词组
语言点:
1. Cultivated language  文雅的语言;limited class  有限的阶级;learned words  书卷词汇
2. A large number of +可数名词复数,表示大量的
3. Relative(adj.相关的)=relatively(adv.相关地)
4. Educate(v.教育)-educated(adj.有修养的);elevate(v.升高)-elevated(adj.高贵的、尊严的)
5. High(adj. adv.高的-指某物的具体高度如:楼的高度)-highly(adv.高度的评价,属于抽象概念)
6. Be(适当形式)+of+importance/value/use/help=important/valuable/usable/helpful
7. The difference between popular and learned words may be easily seen in a few examples.
8. Must have done sth. 表示对过去的事情进行推测。E.g. We must have passed several years of our lives before learning the word vivacious.在我们学到vivacious这个单词时,我们有可能已经度过了生命中的好几年了。
9. Popular(adj.流行的)-popularity(n.流行);sound-(adj.)有道理的
10. Opinions come up  产生观点
11. Its presence in the English vocabulary is due to books and the cultivation of literature rather than to the actual needs of ordinary conversation.书卷词汇在英语词汇中的存在是因为书籍和文学修养的需要,而不是因为普通对话的需要。
Unit Nine

1. There are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation.
2. On the other hand, our language includes a large number of words which are relatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

  On the other hand 另一方面; a large number of 大量的,修饰可数名词
  Used 过去分词作状语。
3. Their meanings are known to every educated person.
4. The difference between them and popular words is of great importance to a right understanding of language.

  be + of + 名词= be + 形容词;
  操练:相互理解对于友谊是至关重要的。
  Understanding each other is of great importance to friendship.
5. Different opinions may come up as to the classification of any particular word.

  操练:如果形势变坏,可能出现严重问题。
  Serious problems may come up if the situation becomes worse.
(Editor:admin)
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